The international mobilisation comes at a time when hundreds of billions of dollars are being found to bail out wealthy bankers and financial institutions, while the emergency summit on the MDGs held at the United Nations last month was only able to generate $16 billion in commitments for ending world poverty.
Thousands of UK citizens, from St Andrews to Portsmouth, will take action in solidarity with people in poor countries by attending protests, public meetings, petition signings and prayer vigils.
Salil Shetty, Director of the UN Millennium Campaign said: "On 17-19 October, world leaders will hear directly from their people that we will no longer stand by while 50,000 people die of preventable causes each day.
"World leaders have just re-committed to achieving the Millennium Development Goals, and from this moment on, we will be holding them accountable for taking urgent action to deliver on their promises."
Glen Tarman from the Global Call to Action Against Poverty said: "The financial crisis combined with the past year's soaring food prices, and subsequent hunger, has highlighted the injustice of global poverty and inequality more than ever.
"This global mobilisation is about solidarity between men, women and children in rich and poor countries; it is about pressuring leaders to honour the promises they have made on poverty, and holding to account leaders who allow injustices to take place."
The mobilisation includes Micah Sunday, when thousands of churches worldwide, including more than 200 in the UK, will make their sermon themes global poverty and the Millennium Development Goals.