Pornography is a factor in the prevalence of 'rough sex', a BBC investigation has found.
In a study conducted by BBC Scotland's Disclosure and Radio 5 Live, seven in ten men (71%) said they have had rough sex.
This included slapping, choking, gagging or spitting on their partner during consexual sex, The Times reports.
Asked what had motivated them to engage in such acts, over half of these men (57%) cited pornography, with one in five saying this had influenced them a "great deal".
Nearly a third of the men (30%) revealed that they had not sought consent from their partner before engaging in these acts, while 41% said their partner was the one to initiate it.
Only a third said they engaged in these behaviours because they found them enjoyable.
The study was carried out by Savanta ComRes on behalf of Disclosure and Radio 5 Live, and examined the sexual behaviour of 2,049 men aged 18 to 39.
The findings are the subject of an episode of Disclosure airing on BBC Scotland on Monday night at 10:45pm.
Brenna Jessie, of Rape Crisis Scotland, suggested it was hard for women to speak up about their experiences.
"There will be a lot of women who have consented to sex but who have not consented violence who won't necessarily recognise their experience to be sexual violence," she told The Times.
"Feelings of guilt are really common because we live in a society that really shames victims and blames them for not doing more to keep themselves safe."